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Lattice structures of the earth magnetic field
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18 - Magnetic field and life 1

The text given in this chapter is a shortened version of the book and contains no literature tips

18.1 - Beginnings of the research

In 1855 the Russian scientist Aleksandr Middendorf published the treatise „The Isepiptesen of Russia“ about the migration of birds in which for the first time was expressed that animals could orientate themselves by the earth magnetic field. In 1886 Joseph Jastrow represented the opinion that a magnet sense could exist.
However, the first experimental investigations for the perception of electromagnetic fields (EMF) took place only in 20th century.
The first investigations to the electric adoption of Welsen made G. H. Parker and A. P. Van Heusen in 1917 with which them found out the non-metallic poles metallic the fish of each other could make a distinction.
In 1948 a work occurred itself with clods concerned, namely "Water movements and earth currents: electrical and magnetic effects" in "Nature 161" of N. Barber and M. See Longuet-Higgins.
In 1951 published H. W. Lissmann his researches to the pike with "Continuous electrical signals from the tail of a fish, Gymnarchus niloticus Cuv." in "Nature 167".
In 1958 "On the function and evolution of electric organs in fish" appeared in „journal of Experimental Biology 35“ from Lissmann and in the same magazine the article "The mechanism of object location in Gymnarchus niloticus and similar fish" of Lissmann and Machin is.
With the work "Evidence for a category of electroreceptors in the lateral line of gymnotid fishes" in 1961 from T.H.Bullock, S. Hagiwara, K. Kusano and K. Negishi was given an experimentally basis for the electric adoption.
In the beginning of the 60s some investigations at neuro-logical level occurred, namely concerning the Lorenzinischen ampoules in sharks. The Lorenzinischen ampoules are tiny senses which are on the skin in the head of the sharks, and practically are unique. They allow sharks the perception of small electric and magnetic tensions as well as also from differences in temperature.

Moreover are the works from R. W. Murray in 1960 in "Nature 187" and from the publication from R. W. To call Murray in 1962 in „journal of Experimental Biology 39“. And also the results of the research of S. Dijkraaf, and A. J. Kalmijn published in 1963 in „magazine Comparative physiology 47“ and in 1966 in the same magazine Volume 53. As well as also the publication of B. Waltmann in 1966 in „Acta physiol. scand. 66“.
Then from the middle of the 60th more general works followed again like „Electroperception in sharks and rays“ in 1966 in "Nature 212" of Kalmijn and "Electroreception in the catfish, Amiurus nebulosus" in "Experientia 24" in 1968 from Dijkraaf.
These would still be the investigations about the electric senses of the Katzenwels from A. To call Roth, which he in 1968 in „Z. cf. Physiol. 61“ and in 1969 in the same magazine Volume 65 published.
Then in 1971 "The Electric Sense of sharks and rays" appeared in the „journal of Experimental Biology 55“ from A. J. Kalmijn.
In 1974 he still published "The Detection of Electric Fields from animate and Animate Sources Other Than Electric Organs" in "Handbook of Sensory Physiology" with that the considerations about electric adoption on magnetic phenomena was expanded.



18.2 - Beginnings of the investigation of magnet reception

They undertook beginning of the 60th H.M. Webb and F.A.Brown, as one first in the area of the magnetic adoption, attempts in those to flat worms as for example Dugesia or Planaria, as well as protozoons treated like the mule little animal, with electromagnetic fields.
Also beginning of the 60th undertook Heinz A. Lowenstam Experimente with beetle snails.
The publication of Günther Becker “Magnetfeld-Orientierung of Dipteren“ followed in 1963 in the magazine "Naturwissenschaften 50" and in the same year an investigation about the electric, magnetic and geographic-ultraoptical orientation of the cockchafer appeared in „Fourth. Naturf., Ges. Zurich, 108“ from FOLLOWING tailor.
In 1964 still appeared „investigations over Magnetfeld-Orientierung of Dipteren“ in "Journal of Comparative Physiology 49" of Günther Becker and Ulrich Speck. Dipteren are Zweiflügler as for example an aviation.
From A.T. Cancer and B.W.Benson the publication "Electron spin resonance in Formicidae" comes in 1965 in "Nature 207".
Already since middle of the 50s M.F.Barnothy made attempts with mice, while she irradiated the animals with magnetic fields and ascertained changes in their behaviour as well as in the blood and in the organs.
In the book in addition other 12 literature tips



18.3 - Magnetic reception and birds

The Heimfindeversuche of birds and geomagnetism hang up together, expressed A. Daanje already in 1941 with the article "Homing and Earth Magnetism" in the magazine "Vogelzug 12". In 1948 the article "Homing pigeon in electromagnetic fields" appeared in „J. Appl. Physics 19“ from C.L. Clark and R. A. Pale and in 1954 followed "Test of the magnetic theory of homing" in "Science 120" from A. R. Organ and S.C. Smith.
Primarily in the 60s, however, also till the middle him of 80th occurred a row of publications, primarily about homing pigeon and their magnetic delicacy.
But only Wolfgang Wiltschko, zoologist and behaviourist especially in the area of the ornithology, developed in the beginning of the 1960s an apparatus with whose help birds were put out to an artificial magnetic field variable with regard to the north south adjustment. With it the researcher managed the experimental proof that birds orientate themselves by the magnetic field of the earth, dispose so of a magnetic compass.
In the book in addition other 67 literature tips



18.4 - Sharks, rays and Kalmijn

In the beginning of the 60s undertook A. J. Kalmijn, as already shown, his first investigations with sharks and rays, primarily about their electric perception ability. A publication about the geomagnetic orientation followed in 1978 also from sharks and rays. (see in addition "Experimental evidence of geomagnetic orientation in elasmobranch fishes" in „Animal migration, navigation and Homing“).
In 1981 and 1982 two articles about the biophysics of the electric and magnetic perception were published with Elasmobranchii by Kalmijn. Elasmobranchii are Plattenkiemer and show a subclass of the cartilage fish. Today only the sharks and rays with approx. 800 kinds belong to them.
In the book in addition other 5 literature tips



18.5 - Bacteria

in August, 1975, the microbiology student Richard Blakemore made an astonishing discovery. He examined bacteria which he had taken from the mud of a pond. When he observed a test under his microscope, he finds out that the bacteria moved throughout in the direction of north. As a result there occurred a row of publications.
In the book in addition 10 literature tips



18.6 - The 80s

In 1978 the magnet-sensory investigations of M.C.Arendse occurred to Tenebrio like meal-worms and Amphipoda like Talitrus or crayfishes. In the same year Gould, Kirschvink and Deffeyes published an article about the magnetism of the bees.
In 1980 undertook P. Semm, T. Tailor and L. Vollrath investigations about effects of the earth magnetic field on pineal gland fabric of birds. Also in 1980 made D. Presti and J D. Pettigrew her investigations with muskulärem fabric with regard to geomagnetic influence.
Other works followed in 1882 and 1983 concerning glandular fabrics of homing pigeons and rodents of Semm. As well as in 1984 from Semm, Nohr, Demaine and Wiltschko a more general work to the neural base of a magnetic compass. To the pineal gland of pigeons one more investigation was published in 1983 by Maffei, Meschini and daddy. Furthermore came out in 1985 from Demaine and Semm a work also concerning homing pigeon and in 1986 an investigation appeared from Semm and Demaine once again on the subject Pineal gland fabric of birds.
In the beginning of the 80s more general works followed like "Biomagnetic magnetite as a basis for magnetic field detection in animals" in "biosystem 13" of Joseph L. Kirschvink and J. L. Gould from 1981.
In 1983 appeared "Biogenic ferrimagnetism: A new biomagnetism" and in 1985 the book "Magnetite Biomineralization and Magnetoreception in Orga-nisms: A New Biomagnetism" was published by Kirschvink, Jones and MacFadden, in the also article of other researchers like farmer, Banerjee, Buskirk, Demi's track, Frankel, Gould, Lowenstam, man, Mather, Moskowitz, Perry, Presti, fuller among other things are included.
In the book in addition other 15 literature tips



18.7 - Fish und magnetic reception

Still the works of M are worth mentioning. M. The fuller who published 1984 investigations about tunas. In 1985 he dealt with bees. In 1988 appeared an article about trouts. And in 1989 two publications about bees, again with Bittermann together.
In 1992 "Evidence that fin whales respond to the geomagnetic field during migration" appeared in „J. Exptl. Biol. 171“ from fuller, Kirschvink, Dizon, and Ahmed. Since 1997 fuller publishes rather general researches as the magnet sense of the vertebrates which live in the water.
In the book in addition other 11 literature tips



18.8 - Tortoises and magnetic reception

Kenneth Lohmann investigated possibly middle of 80th first the magnet sense to crawfish.
Later he proved with other US researchers how exactly the genetically agreed sensor works in so-called "Unechten Karettschildkröten". Like the team around Kenneth Lohmann (from whom University of North Carolina) reports serve on open sea local specific features of the magnetic field as navigation points which can signal to the animals, for example, a change of the swimming direction.
In the book in addition other 13 literature tips



18.9 - Klaus Schulten

Further the works of Klaus Schulten and the researchers from his vicinity are still to be called. In 1978 "A biomagnetic sensory mechanism based on magnetic field modulated coherent electron spin motion" appeared in the „magazine for physical chemistry NF111“ from magistrates, Swen's mountain, and Weller and in 1982 followed "Magnetic field effects in chemistry and biology" in "In J.Treusch, editor, Festkörperprobleme, Volume 22" of magistrates.



18.10 - Biomineralisation

A process with which as a result of the life activity of organisms mineral products originate in the cells is called Biomineralisation. Because as a rule Magnetit, and with it linked processes, a considerable role play with the conversion of physical registration in physiological processes, the Biomineralisation has a certain weight in the adoption of magnetic fields.
To the subject Biomineralisation and Magnetit an extensive collection exists meanwhile on publications. The works of Farina, Dunin-Borkowski, McCartney and Pósfai which examined magnetic microstructures of magnetotaktischen bacteria, among the rest, by means of electron microscopes and electric holography are worth mentioning here.
In the book in addition other 59 literature tips



18.11 - Magnetite, magnetosome and micelles

As other important works are the publications of R.B.Frankel, D.A.Bazylinski, and D. Schoolboy, and the researcher from her vicinity to call from the 90s. These works deal primarily with bacteria, cells and cell components, like Mizellen, membranes or Magnetosome, and deliver grounds of the magnet sense at microbiological level. One calls Magnetosome magnetic particle (mostly Magnetit) in the cells of living being. They form the base for the orientation in magnetic fields. Micelles (also association colloids called) are aggregates from so-called amphiphilen molecules and play a role in cell processes.
In the book in addition other 43 literature tips



18.12 - Magnetospirillum

Magnetotaktische bacteria have become a stationary concept in the today's biology. (see in addition also the book "Mikrobiologie des Meeres" Page 148 of Lutz-Arend and Meyer-Reil from 2005)
In 1975 from R. P. Blakemore discovered Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum or Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum capable bacterium is described in the today's biology as a grief-negative, mikroaerophiles, spiral, by scourge movable and to the Aerotaxis.
In 1992 schoolboys and charcoal burners discovered even a new magnetotaktische bacterial kind, them in the „Zentralbl. Mikrobiol. 147 published“ and in the same year the book "Magnetospirillum" of grinder, schoolboy and Ludwig also appeared. Numerous independent publications, many of it from the younger time form a group round the bacterium Magnetospirillum around meanwhile.
In the book in addition other 51 literature tips



18.13 - Genetics

From the employment of the bacterium Magnetospirillum also became necessarily an investigation of the bacterial genetics. Meanwhile there is a whole series of publications to this range of topics. The works of T are worth mentioning here. Matsunaga and C. Nakamura from 1991, in 1992, in 1995, in 2000 and 2005 which deal with the genes and the genetic transfer as well as the proteins involved in it.
In the book in addition other 14 literature tips



18.14 - Grounds, rock depositions and lakes

in the meantime, also exist a row on investigations to magnetotaktischen bacteria in limestone depositions, rock depositions, grounds and lakes, among other things in Tasmania, Sweden, Switzerland, Baikal as well as in the Atlantic and in the Pacific Ocean.
In the book in addition other 42 literature tips



18.15 - ALH 84001

in connection with magnetotaktischen bacteria and Magnetit still the 1.9-kg-meteorite is to be called here ALH 84001. The meteorite was found in 1984 in the Allan Hills-ice field in Antarctic. But only in 1993 the identification happened as a Mars meteorite. (the so-called SNC meteorite)
In comparison to the other Mars meteorites which mostly have a relatively young geologic age ALH 84001 already originated before about 4.5 milliard years. On the basis of measurements of the radiotherapy age ALH 84001 was slung, presumably by the impact of a bigger asteroid on Mars, before from about 15 to 17 million years, from the Mars surface. Then about 13000 years ago he should have landed on the earth.
In 1993 an investigation of the meteorite occurred through Bradley, Harvey, and McSween. They found thin long crystalline things which are also called hair crystals and interpreted structures them as Thrombozyten (platelet).
In 1997 an investigation occurred through Kirschvink, Maine, and Vali to the end came which the carbonate contained in the meteorites has originated at low temperatures.
From 1994 to 1999 also took place a row of general investigations in which the meteorite was checked for age, Carbonate, isotopes and gases there.
The age of the carbonate vesicles contained in the meteorites has been determined with the called investigations on about 4 milliard years. If the Magnetosomen are in the carbonate vesicles of organic origin (it cannot be exactly determined with the investigations whether the Magnetosome own organic or anoranischen origin) this would be the oldest proof of life him up to now was found. (The oldest fossil findings on the earth are about 500 million years younger everybody) Provided the Magnetosomen in the carbonate vesicles are of organic bacterial origin the age of the Magnetosomen implies in the meteorite that magnet adoption shows the original first sensor system generally.
In the book in addition other 42 literature tips



18.16 - Life forms and magnetic reception

Concerning Detektion, adoption and orientation towards magnetic fields has been found, in the meantime, with a whole series of life forms, the suitable Sensorik. Namely with:
Amphipoda like Talitrus or crayfishes
Bees and bumblebees
Dipteren to Zweiflüglern like aviation
Amphibians like salamander
Molluscs molluscs like mussels or snails
Salmonidae like trouts or salmons
Song kinds and bird of passage kinds like garden warblers, Stärlinge, aviation flycatchers, pipe singers, Honeyeater, buntings, sparrows, gulls
subterranean mammals like grey garden peats, blind mice
Tenebrio like meal-worms
Water vertebrates like fish, frogs
In the book in addition other 312 literature tips



18.17 - Seeing and magnetic reception

The Wiltschkos were able, with other scientists show together, in an experiment that redbreasts to which the right eye was sealed completely lose the orientation. A stuck together left eye leads against it to no interference of the orientation sense.
The result produced the investigations in various animal species that the seeing of many animals and the magnetic orientation are interwined with each other. Therefore also exist a row on works on the subject animal seeing and magnet adoption.
In the book in addition other 39 literature tips



18.18 - Plants

An orientation of the adjustment towards the earth magnetic field and also other effects or reactions with influence of a magnetic field is also given with plants.
In the book in addition other 11 literature tips



18.19 - The magnetic sense

The works of Bazylinski, Frankel, Kalmijn, Kirshvink, Lohmann, man, schoolboy, magistrate, Semm, fuller and Wiltschko as well as the scientist from her sphere, found and book the perception of magnetic fields at molecular, microbiological and physiological level and belong, hence, to the basic works as the magnet sense.
In general it is described in the biology Magnetotaxis as the orientation of the movement direction by life forms in a magnetic field or in the magnetic field of the earth.
(see also „textbook of the botany“ founds from Strasburger, Noll, innkeeper and Schimper, 34th edition, p. 427)
The magnet sense (how he, in the meantime, in the biology is called) to perceive so the ability the magnetic field of the earth and to orientate itself in him, it is proved since middle of the 1960s, so for 45 years, in many life forms experimentally as could be shown.
In the meantime, one also knows that already smaller variations of the natural earth magnetic field can influence the orientation of the animals. The magazine "Proceedings" of the British royal Society (edn. 269 No. 1487) reports that researchers from Great Britain could recently show that mice react without natural magnetic field in her surroundings more sensitive to pain. Former investigations had shown that a reinforced magnetic field lowers the pain delicacy of rodents.
nervous systems seem sensitively compared with changes
in the natural magnetic field
This lays the acceptance near that already slight changes in the field of the earth, can affect the nervous system.


In the book,the performed literature tips contain about 99 percent of the research for the the magnet sense
during the 20 th century.


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